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September 30th, 2008

(PART 2 OF 2)

The company Pupesa enters in the following phase, with the purchase of the raw material at a value above the usual market value. 80% is paid in advance (15 days before the delivery) and the remaining 20% against delivery. "The idea is to break the high power of negotiation of the intermediaries, by receiving a regular supply of aguaje and always paying the same price (S/.10 as a minimum) ", maintains Perez. To them the delivery of the sacks in the Pupesa plant of Iquitos would be part of the deal, so that the communities add a greater value to their product and in addition that the transport offer is articulated. "The work of Pupesa is to make the growth of producers and manufacturers profitable, so that everybody gains”; Perez points out. Shambo sells in Iquitos and some zones of Lima frozen sorbets of aguaje for nearly S/.120.000 monthly. The investment in the project (almost S/.80.000) is not very high because the most important work was to have agriculturists as partners and a social company that demands what is just, but with a potential for growth. "Pupesa projects first in Loreto with the aguaje, but its work of consultancy can be applied to other fruits and others companies". In order to understand the magnitude of this project, it is enough to mention that the graduate students have already talked to big Lima companies interested in the nutritious properties of the aguaje, because it contains five times more vitamin A than carrot. Remember them!
1. Unlike other natural products, the aguaje breaks with natural seasonality, because it grows in the river basin of different rivers, at different times of the year.
2. They are around 1,140 direct rural collectors of aguaje in the Loreto region. Also, there are 5,000 families related to the value chain of the value, as well as 1,833 population centres close to the areas with aguaje palms.
3. Although this project does not yet look for the certification of fair trade, this market grew 75% since the year 2000 in the United States alone. Also, the organic product market grows 20% per year.
4. In the Ports of Belem, Nauta and Iquitos (main commercial points) the cost of the aguaje sack is very variable. It can cost from S/.7 to S/.50, according to the timing and of the intervention of intermediaries.
For further information and to make contact with the creators of the project, write to:

September 29th, 2008

(PART 1 OF 2)

A new project intends to teach the best way to collect this fruit, to process it and to sell it to an ice cream factory in Iquitos. Few profitable businesses have a noticeable social projection. One of those exceptions is Pupesa (Peruvian Pulp of the Amazonian Forest), the project elaborated by Paulo Perez, Gustavo Castillo, Victor Hugo Cornejo and Victor Sarria – who have just finished their studies of Business Administration in the University of the Pacific, namely to sell pulp from aguaje (Mauritius Palm XXXXX) to the largest ice cream factory in Iquitos. "Bio commerce is the concept that best describes the plan which we devised, because we combined the technical work of the NGO Pro Naturaleza with the demand of the Shambo" Company; says Paulo Perez. Loreto is a region where the aguaje is very appreciated and consumed.
It is calculated that in the Department 22 tons is consumed daily, in the form of sorbet ice cream, refreshment called aguajina and as fresh fruit, etc.), where only as little as 15% of the fruit is edible. Nevertheless that requirement has resulted in that 98% of the aguaje of the zone comes from the felling of the palm. In order to resist that practice, Pro Naturaleza is training the communities of the river basins of the Marañón and the Yanayacu-Pucate (in the Natural Reserve Pacaya Samiria) for the sustainable extraction of the fruit. "Five of those communities will work with us in around 732 hectares and could produce 42,700 sacks per year, the maximum approved by the Institute of Natural Resources - Inrena", Perez adds. The idea is that these agriculturists see as competitive advantage this change and receive a more just payment.

September 26th, 2008

(PART 5 OF 5)

Translated from an article written by Miguel Ángel Cárdenas M.
The images of the men with rings around their heads are also enigmatic, like astronauts. Because, according to Gordillo, they could reveal astral cosmo visions. Also those connections happen to the figures of the musicians with cephalic hairdos, the pinkullista players, the archers and the butterflies with signs that have not been able to be interpreted. In the zone there exist and they have been carved into the rocks the trident figures that were the visionary cacti of the yatiris (there is a petro glyph called the Labyrinth that seems a hallucinogenic flight) and geoglyph of 120 metres in length and 5 metres tall that has been recorded on the rocks for a ceremony to the water that can only be observed well from the sky, as in the Nazca lines.

If something is emphasized in Miculla, it is the unique movement and plasticity of the drawings. Like in the figures of the feline with a horizontal 8 - like the number and the symbol of the infinite, the eagle that catches a serpent in the air, the hunter of small lizards, the puma ready to pounce and the guanaco camelid with its retinue of five females for him only and, which, following the laws of life, lost when older and he was challenged to a duel by a younger male. And also one cannot ignore the drawing of the so called Suri or Ñandú, a kind of South American ostrich, in danger of extinction.

It is necessary to walk much and long to appreciate each frozen stone and fortunately there is a road and trails with two suspension bridges and viewpoints. It is admirable that this road has been kept clean and conserved by the women of the Club of Mothers of Miculla. "With the help of Caritas they were like 20 working for a month as a form to make their contribution to their community and from which they will soon benefit with the tourism potential”; says Gordillo, who also has yet more surprises for the country: the popularisation of the Inca Road of Palca, "that communicated the river basin of the Puna High Plateau with the pacific Coast and which is kept conserved and is very beautiful". And a discovery in the year 2000 - when the community members and a police man alerted the authorities – something that it is going to change to the dating of antiquity and Peruvian parietal art. On the border with Chile, in the Cordillera Mountain Range of Barroso, at 4 thousand metres above sea level; there are 60 caves with cave paintings, "superior in conception to those of Toquepala". Gordillo already obtained that the site, Vilavilani, be declared Cultural Patrimony of the Nation to protect it from the people who have been robbing stones. These have caused that the community today closes the access to the area to any stranger. Through this means they are trying to preserve that area and to solve the conflict. Tacna, then, keeps another inestimable archaeological surprise. And "there is probably more to yet discover".

September 25th, 2008

(PART 4 OF 5)

Translated from an article written by Miguel Ángel Cárdenas M.
The petro glyph of the fox with his Andean quena flute is also as something out of a hallucinatory dream that in the local legend is a considered a propitious animal to summon water. And those of the white eagle that in Districts such as Calana Nature is the carrier of ferocity. Everything so much related to the images of rites of sexual fertility, with the drawings of phallic symbols and vulvas that deserve a comparative study with those of Chucuito and Moche in northern Peru.

In Miculla, the Sun that leaves everything charred with its rays and the Moon, as cold as it is precious, are fruitful cohabitants. Both are present in the most important and revealing petro glyphs, like in the athletic figure of the man who carries the Sun and the representations of the Moon and star constellations like the Southern Cross. Not in vain in Miculla the shepherds say that "the clouds dance". And so do the drawings on the stones with them.

Gordillo found the explanation of the myth: "In winter the fog, the so called camanchaca, descends by the valley edge, but when it reaches the rising sun it produces like a fight. The visual effect is like seeing the clouds dancing in the midst". Here could be founded a centre of "astronomy written in stones". For example with the figure of a yatiri observing the cosmos (a yatiri is an Aymaran priest). In the 1995 eclipse, an expert of the Society of Astronomy of Houston verified that his position - and the concentric circle that was drawn by his side on the rock - was oriented, precisely and amazingly, towards the concealment of the Moon, at the hour 7:05 p.m. when the phenomenon took place. Thus the hypothesis of an astronomical observatory that makes the stones on the ground become brothers with those of the sky - like in so many old sites in Peru - acquires new force. The myths in addition say that the concentric circles drawn as depicting the Moon represent "a way to tie down the Sun".

September 24th, 2008

(PART 3 OF 5)

Translated from an article written by Miguel Ángel Cárdenas M.
In Miculla, the scarcity of water and the furtive wind are brothers in the desert. The link between the shortage of the one and the intensity of the sand dust that the other provokes seems to be the reasons that made and still make of the site, according to Jesus Gordillo, "- a great ceremonial centre of worship of water and fertility. The water is so basic that there has been a syncretised continuity with the Catholicism until today with the procession of the Virgin of the Rosary, of whom it is asked that she fight the dried up rivers; or the ceremonial offerings or “pagos” or payments of the people of the Puna high plateau that come down to the coast with their lamas, and other came lids; something that they have been doing since pre Hispanic times". Just remember the recent problem -that in fact was over water-- that confronted the Regions of Tacna with Moquegua. "And why is it that in the celebrations of the Districts of Tarata and Chucatamani the personage of the water carrier - distributor entails a more important ritual status than the presence of the Regional President himself".

Because of this, if there is a petro glyph that prevails here, it is the one of the Lord of the Waters or Lord of the Serpents, that seems to be using sacred walking sticks and can be found as far South as in Arica. An analogous figure to those of Chavín, that remind us of the mythical Wiracocha and the portals of Tiahuanaco, which the Aymarans conceived for their fertility cults.

September 23rd, 2008

(PART 2 OF 5)

Translated from an article written by Miguel Ángel Cárdenas M.
Such is the visual and atmospheric magnetism of the place that, in a few and quiet years, it has become the first site of its kind in being made into a valuable and qualified Peruvian place for visitors. Mainly, thanks to the untiring work of 25 years of the archaeologist Jesus Gordillo, one of those little compensated personages of this country who love so much their historical past that they could die for it.

In Lima and in the rest of the country, Miculla is still not known, but Chilean tourists that come overland are asking to visit it as a fixed point or as a first archaeological site on their way to Cuzco. Especially because, according to the famous Grand Dame of Peruvian archaeology, Maria Rostworowski, it is a vital region that she has called Colesuyo, with an area of cultural influence reaching from Camaná in Peru to Atacama in Chile. And here there was a place where a cosmic cult to the water was practised in the stones.

So much is its importance that here the first Research Centre of Rock Art in South America is going to be built, when the second stage of the project culminates that is being led by Gordillo. "We only lack the determination of the Regional Government for it to be carried out", the expert asks.

September 22nd, 2008

(PART 1 OF 5)

Translated from an article written by Miguel Ángel Cárdenas M.
The Southern border town of Tacna has kept another symbol of its Peruvian identity in its so attractive but little known or popularized millenarian mountain range. Few remember that it was in the caves of Toquepala - at three hours from the Capital of the Department-- where one the oldest vestiges of cave paintings in Peru were found, with 10 thousand years of antiquity. But at the beginning of this new century have come to light other sites that can make out of Tacna the point where, as the people of Tacna say, not only the country begins, but also its history and patrimony.
In Miculla, the distances and the stones are like mother and children. In the gorges of Palca and Uchusuma, near the Caplina River, more than 1,500 stone petro glyphs have been found on the granite and volcanic tuft – scattered in a still indecipherable order- in an arduous and barren area of 2,205.43 hectares. Of these, the 42 hectares of the Pampas of San Francisco are of a geologic formation from the recent Quaternary (five million years ago) with 496 mythical figures cut into the rocks and rounded stones from the archaeological so called Formative Period, followed by the Tiahuanaco stage that lasted a century and up to and including the pacific conquest by the Inca Túpac Yupanqui. Here, in a fantastic cultural continuity, the original artists and shamans recreated insinuating magic religious beings, who indicate astronomical directions, next to hunting scenes, musical celebrations and erotic fertility rites.

September 19th, 2008

They reclaim in the Cusco 890 robbed archaeological pieces Pre-Columbian objects were supplied in a store near the Place of Arms. They capture 2 dealers of cultural patrimony. The police in the smoothed premises. They only had a warehouse of robbed queológicas pieces ar to meters of the Place of Arms of the Cusco. A incaicos and preincaicos even inescrupulosa that dealt ceramic and jewellery, promoting them even through videos, was arrested by the authorities in that city. During the intervention one reclaimed 890 Hispanic pieces of incalculable historical value, needed commander Carlos Neat Suárez, head of the Police of local Tourism. The spouses Mauro Alvítez Mendoza and Mercedes Sayre Quispe were surprised in the building of the street Hill of Admiral 282, just in front of the centric Museum Inca. In order to confuse to the PNP they had qualified in the place a store of sale of souvenirs. In the second floor were the pre-Columbian crafts that the prisoners supplied to the best postor. Key video The police took knowledge from the scandalous traffic of archaeological pieces, after abroad receiving a spread video, in which Mauro Alvítez shows the ceramics objects to promote its sale. Suárez commander informed that the tape was given to the Department of the Interior by the North American embassy. " During a month we investigated the case, until privily we stopped to esposos" , it needed the official.

September 18th, 2008


A third of the archaeological complex of Mocollope has been destroyed. The National Institute of Culture (INC by its Spanish acronym) of the Department of La Libertad will open legal procedures against the Municipality of Casa Grande and a construction company. The first diagnosis that became known in the zone reveals that the archaeological complex of Mocollope is in serious danger. Even worse and although it is still not official, sources revealed that the damage perpetrated to these ruins declared Cultural Patrimony have been affected, in an irreparable way, to a third of their extension. That is to say, more of 30% of the history of this place was lost forever. As mentioned before it was denounced that the Casa Grande tried to construct a sanitary landfill in the ruins of Mocollope. The authorities of that locality initiated the works, and thus they disobeyed a previous notification by the mayor of Chocope, Héctor Bocanegra Arbulú, with whom they maintain an issue of boundaries and in which it was pointed out that that the zone had been catalogued like a Cultural Patrimony of the Nation in 1994. In view of the facts, the National Institute of Culture (INC La Libertad) investigated and filed a legal claim in which the legal department of this organization along with the additional claims presented by the municipality of Chocope, in order for the corresponding administrative actions and legal to begin. In the next days the process will begin, that will include the Company Constructora A& J Engineer General Contractors SAC, for entering the area with heavy machine of its property. More than 3.000 square metres of extension were destroyed by a tractor since the works in this zone began. It is now more than 10 years since the archaeological complex has been used as a landfill.

September 17th, 2008


Native Ashaninkas penetrate in the hotel and the gastronomy profession. Three native communities receive training on existential tourism. A new initiative is underway in the central forest. Members of three native communities receive professional training as hoteliers and in regional gastronomy in order to develop an ambitious project of existential tourism in the region.
In a first stage, rustic lodgings were constructed respecting the geography of the zone. "The natives sleep on platforms and they do not use bedspreads, and they have had to become familiar with the making of a bed and change of bed linen”, comments Martin Jaurapoma Lizana, anthropologist in charge of the training in the Community of Pangá, of the District of Mazamari (Satipo). Other communities that participate in this project are Pampas Michi (Chanchamayo) and Marankiari Bajo (Satipo). In this entire zone, the houses of the native ones are, in fact, wood platforms with a ceiling of plaited palm fronds. The natives have learned, also, to build rooms with walls and ceilings of noble materials. The result has been amazing. It causes admiration to see what the inhabitants of these communities have done: masks carved in wood, crafts, instruments of hunting, shells of snails and other adornments have been distributed in different spaces of these lodgings. Thus, a coco nut shell has become a beautiful flowerpot and aromatic wood branches can serve as towels hangers. Also they emphasize the gastronomy of the area. In the community of Pangá, two cooks originating from the locality of Rio Tambo, Adela Villacava and Dayana Domingo, are in charge to teach the natives to prepare typical dishes without many spices or artificial additives, and only with natural ingredients originating from the place like the salt, red pepper and other spices. This community, that years back was saved from terrorism thanks to the natural protection of the Pangá River, has decided (like the others included in the project) to enter into the tourism business to help with the development and well-being of its 272 settlers. It has become a development of a different kind and, obviously, beneficial. During the training, the natives are taught about of the customs of the visitors, nationals and foreigners, in order to apply them to their programmes of tourism. A spare rib of monkey with fried bananas, anyone?

September 16th, 2008


500 hectares of the Totora reed of the Lake Titicaca reserve are burning from wildfires. This habitat of resident and migratory wild birds is seriously affected. In the last weeks the sky of Puno is darkened because of the dense clouds of smoke originated by the burning wild fire of the Totora reeds of the bay of the Titicaca Lake, a practice to which the settlers resort to get rid of totora reed dried by the frosts. The burning fire allows the so called totorales to soon sprout again, but it contaminates the air and it generates a bad impression for the tourists who visit the floating islands of the Uros. This practice is affecting the habitat of the resident and migratory wild birds that nest between the totorales, asserts the National commander of the Reserva Nacional del Titicaca National Reserve (RNT), David Araniba. According to the specialist, the burning of the totorales began in June and up to seven different places go up in flames every day. That is a high incidence in comparison with other years. It is due to the climate change in the Plateau, that is demonstrated in irregular rains and unexpected frosts, and is affecting the growth of the totorales. An evaluation done by the RNT in the scope of its jurisdiction determined that there are 500 hectares of burned totorales. The sector pertaining to the centre populated by the Uros cannot be evaluated, because they will not allow the park guards to enter their territory. One week ago the floating island Kapi Uros was devastated by fire. A chapel and the houses of ten families were reduced to ashes. Also, the local committee of Civil Defence acknowledged the burning of 50 hectares of totorales. The fire was caused by the coastal settlers of the zone of Coata and Capachica, without considering that the gusts of wind could extend the fire to the small island. The National Reserve of Titicaca (RNT) has evaluated only the protected reserve, but it is not known how many more hectares of totorales are being burned in the whole bay. The RNT has 23,300 hectares of totorales and is the natural habitat of 50% of the biodiversity of the lake. The local park guards of the RNT do not have the adequate equipment to put out the fires and neither do the firemen of Puno.

September 15th, 2008


Megan Goudie is no ordinary young woman. Raised in Port aux Basques, her sight is set on places far away from home, especially since her recent experience in the Amazon Jungle. Ms. Goudie just returned home ago after spending six weeks in South America where she visited places like Brazil and Peru. With an undergraduate in biology, the young woman worked there as a volunteer general research assistant with an organization called Operation Wallacea - a series of biological and social science expedition projects that operate in remote locations around the world. The expeditions are designed with specific wildlife conservation aims in mind - from identifying areas needing protection to implementing and assessing conservation management programs. Large teams of university academics, specialists in various aspects of biodiversity or social and economic studies, are concentrated at the target study sites. The study site, in which Ms. Goudie was involved, along with 27 other students and six professors and researchers, is called Largo Preto. One of the main reasons for the project is the area's flagship species, the red uakari monkeys, which are only found in this part of the world. Their main source of food is a fruit that is grown on aguaje or Mauritius palm trees. In cooperation with the community, Operation Wallacea hopes to implement a conservation site there to prevent the threat of logging which is a main industry in that country. Established in 2004, the Largo Preto project is between stages 1 and 2 of development. There are typically four stages before a study site, or project, becomes a conservation management site. Ms. Goudie's workday often involved eight hours of walking through the hot and humid jungle where temperatures reach up to 40 degrees Celsius. During her walk, she would collect different kinds of samples for the researchers. One of her projects involved counting frogs, noting where they live and their condition. Another job involved catching a type of alligator called caiman, forcing its mouth open and inserting a tube to collect some stomach contents for research purposes. One of Ms. Goudie's best memories is catching a large, 1.5-metre caiman on her birthday, July 9. Overall, she describes her six weeks as an eye-opening experience and recommends it to anyone interested in learning about remote parts of the world and who is interested in conservation. "This has really fuelled my passion for this type of work," said Ms. Goudie. "I always wanted to do something like this, and now that I have, I realize there's so much more to see and do. There are so many organizations out there to work with." Ms. Goudie learned about Operation Wallacea during a presentation by a representative of the organization at St. Francis Xavier University in Antigonish, N.S., where she studied last term. Her and a fellow student, Clark Tardiff of Bathurst, N.B., travelled to South America together. The pair left Halifax on June 16 for Toronto and then direct to Lima, Peru in South America. From there they flew to Cuzco in South eastern Peru, took a train to Iquitos - the only city in the world that is not accessible by a road, only by train or air - and then sailed the Amazon River for 10 days. "The whole experience was so memorable," said Ms. Goudie. "From travelling on the river and going to one of the most remote places in Peru.”All you see is mostly river and forest," she described, "it gives me a whole new appreciation for the importance of conserving these places."
Ms. Goudie feels fortunate to have seen unusual fish, animals and insects like tarantulas, pink river dolphins, monkeys, sloths, giant anteaters and other critters. The local cuisine was less than desirable however, especially considering Ms. Goudie's vegetarian diet. In the jungle she passed up piranha soup for rice and eggs and onion and lime. "I don't like to think about that part of it," she said.
Ms. Goudie said her experience is openly available to anyone with an interest, and a passion, for conservation. They don't need to be university students. The cost of the six-week experience is about $3,000, but Ms. Goudie said fundraising efforts help offset the cost.
As for Ms. Goudie, she said she hopes to return to South America again in the future. In the meantime, she is preparing to go to the University of Alberta in Edmonton to study for her master’s degree in Ecology.

September 11st, 2008


Peruvian Amazon Line made its first port of call at the Port of Tampa last week. Its m/v Yacu Puma delivered forest products from Peru and fertilizer from Mexico as part of a new shipping connection between Tampa and the main Peruvian and Brazilian ports on the Amazon River, as well as Colombia and Mexico. The connection to Tampa could add as much as $250,000 in revenue to the Port of Tampa, port estimates say. Southbound shipments consisted of yachts and machinery destined to Brazil, a release said. Peruvian Amazon Line specializes in the shipment of general cargo, project cargo, bulk cargo and containers. Ports America Group at the Port of Tampa container terminal provided stevedoring and terminal operations. Wilhelmsen Ships Service in Houston and Fillette Green as subagent in Tampa are the steamship agents for Peruvian Amazon Line.

September 10th, 2008


With the aim of preserving the natural riches in the Province of Huaura, the Mayor Pedro Zurita Paz, has asked for the Ministry of House, Construction and Cleaning; the emission of a norm, which will annul the public auction that the Compañia Nacional de Edificaciones – ENACE, in liquidation, wants to carry out for the land bordering the Albufera de Medio Mundo Lagoon, since it is a National Reserve and by supreme decree it was declared an Area of Regional Conservation. “… we are going to resort to this organ (INRENA) for being the one in charge of the creation, administration and conservation of the Protected Natural Areas, to try to annul the public auction of lands of the ENACE, to the being a dependency of the Ministry of Agriculture and thanks to the decentralization of competitions to traverse the Regional Direction of Agriculture (DRAL), we have much hope to suspend the auction and soon to obtain the declaration like National Reserve to the Albufera de Medio Mundo, one of our three lagoons…” the Lic. Pedro Zurita Paz declared with optimism. It is possible to indicate that the Company Nacional de Edificaciones - ENACE in liquidation is a public company of private right, reason why the disposition of its assets and liabilities that conform its patrimony, is realised in conformity to the Law of the Promotion of the Private Deprived Investment in the Companies of the State.

September 09th, 2008


One hundred days after photos of one of the world’s last uncontacted tribes made world headlines; a report promised by the Peruvian government in response has still not been made public.
The photos sparked international media frenzy and spurred the government into sending an investigating team into the remote jungle. A report on the investigation was promised in June, but to date nothing has been released. The tribe photographed is from Brazil, near the Peruvian border, but illegal loggers on the Peruvian side are devastating the forest and have forced other uncontacted Indians from Peru into Brazil. ‘What is happening in this region [of Peru] is a monumental crime against the environment, the tribes, the fauna and is further testimony to the complete irrationality with which we, the ‘civilised’ ones, treat the world,’ said José Carlos dos Reis Meirelles Júnior, a Brazilian government expert on uncontacted tribes, who was in the plane from which the photos were taken.
Peru’s President Garcia publicly suggested uncontacted tribes have been ‘invented’ by ‘environmentalists’ opposed to oil exploration in the Amazon, while another spokesperson compared them to the Loch Ness monster. In fact, there are fifteen uncontacted tribes in Peru, all of them under threat from logging and oil and gas exploration. The Peruvian Amazon has recently seen thousands of indigenous Peruvians protesting against new laws that they say make it easier for outsiders to seize control of their territories. The protests led to the repeal of two laws by Peru’s Congress.
‘The Peruvian government must not be to allowed to bury this issue, or to turn their backs on the uncontacted tribes. What exactly is the government doing? These are some of Peru’s most vulnerable citizens and they are fleeing the country – calling them ‘uncontacted refugees’ would be no exaggeration.

September 08th, 2008


The registered drizzle the night of Wednesday in Lima was the most intense of the last eleven years and it would be possible to be repeated in the next days, commented the expert of the National Service of Meteorology and Hydrology, Nelson Quispe. The meteorologist indicated that the phenomenon caused surprise because was a tip that only is repeated each certain amount of years. He reminded that in 1997 and 1998 strong drizzles appeared, but of lesser intensity.


A new wall Inca was found during works of improvement of a centric Cuzco street, at only two blocks from the Plaza de Armas of the Imperial City. Preliminary investigations maintain that the wall comprised part of the system of Inca roads or Cápac Ñan, since it extends towards another important Inca wall with similar characteristics. In the next days the National Institute of Culture of Cusco will present a technical report and it will be restored.

September 05th, 2008


Petroleo Brasileiro SA may invest as much as $100 million in oil and gas exploration in Peru's southern Amazon jungle next year, the state-controlled Brazilian company's Peruvian manager, Pedro Grijalba, said. The company known as Petrobras plans to drill two wells in Block 58 bordering Peru's Camisea gas fields, Grijalba told reporters today in Lima. Petrobras also is investing $100 million a year in its north coastal Block 10, he said. ``This will enable us to confirm the presence of liquid gas in the southern jungle,'' Grijalba said. ``It could make it possible to carry out a series of additional investments including a gas pipeline, energy generation and petrochemicals''. Petrobras' projects are part of Peruvian President Alan Garcia's quest for about $10 billion in energy investment commitments to help spark 7 percent annual economic growth over the next five years. Peru, South America's fifth-largest gas producer, increased oil and gas exports by one-quarter to $2.3 billion last year. With oil output of 14,000 barrels a day in Peru, Petrobras is the second-largest petroleum producer in the country behind Argentina's Pluspetrol SA.

September 04th, 2008


Due to the absence of rain, the level of the River Mantaro, one of most important of the Department of Junín, register an important reduction, that already surpasses its historical record, informed Adam Cadillo Branches, female leader of the National Service of Meteorology and Hydrology (Senamhi) of Junín. According to it explained the Andean agency, the hydrologic year August 2007-September 2008 of the Mantaro will close with an average of 79 centimetres in the level of its waters, very below its historical mark of 1.10 meters. “In the last years this tendency of low levels has been observed and this year seems not to be the exception. Although the population does not consume much its waters due to the contamination, it is important for the electrical generation”, she pointed out. The specialist also noticed that the next season of rains would not be sufficient for a recovery of the present situation of the mentioned river. “Although it is still very premature to affirm it, we did not visualize a recovery that approximates it to the historical record, we do not see a sufficiently positive recovery”, indicated Ramos Cadillo. At another moment she considered that as of the first week of September important pluvial precipitations of Junín will begin to register themselves, which will accentuate one week later and in October they would already be significant. “This panorama can allow the authorities to culminate with the works of channels and cleaning to avoid the problems of floods that usually appear by that time in some channels” said the civil servant. Also she referred to that the minimum temperatures in Junín have begun to ascend. In zones as the Valley of the Mantaro the minimum values of 0 to 6,9 degrees are registered, and in the high Andean parts -1, -2, and possibly -3. “A different situation is appraised in the forest part, in localities like Puerto Ocopa, where temperatures have reached even 37,2 degrees in the last days with quite a suffocating climate”, the specialist commented.

September 03rd, 2008


The remains of a brewery in the southernmost settlement of an ancient Peruvian empire appears to provide proof that women of high rank crafted chicha, a beerlike beverage made from corn and spicy berries that was treasured by the Wari people of old as well as their modern day descendants. Decorative shawl pins, worn exclusively by high caste women, littered the floor of the brewery, which was capable of producing more than 475 gallons of the potent brew a week. "The brewers were not only women, but elite women," says Donna Nash of the Field Museum in Chicago, a member of the archaeology team studying the Cerro Baúl site where the ruins were found. "They weren't slaves and they weren't people of low status. So the fact that they made the beer probably made it even more special." More than a decade of research into Cerro Baúl led to this finding, which supports Spanish accounts of Incan women a successor culture of the Wari as master brewers and weavers. The Cerro Baúl brewery churned out chicha for nearly 400 years before the imposing site situated on a mesa summit more than 10,000 feet above sea level was mysteriously abandoned. The economics of living in this spot were not favorable: all resources, including water, had to be hauled up to the lofty site from the valley below by means of steep, treacherous trails. Perhaps because of that, after the Wari abandoned it, Cerro Baúl remained uninhabited. In its heyday, however, it boasted a population of around 1,000 people, a palace, temple and an intricate series of canals that allowed irrigation of the otherwise arid slopes of the surrounding mesas for crops. The Wari may have chosen the imposing (and sacred) site as a diplomatic front with the neighboring Tiwanaku empire in present-day Bolivia, who had their own settlement in the valley. "These were frontier outposts, facing off but with very little contact," says lead author Michael Moseley of the University of Florida. "The Wari and Tiwanaku are not borrowing anything from each other, even though we find artifacts brought in from other cultures thousands of miles away." In fact, the Wari outpost used obsidian mined hundreds of miles north for its arrows and knives rather than more local, Tiwanaku sources. Around A.D. 1000, the Wari ritualistically abandoned the mesa-top fortress in the Moquega river basin. They brewed one last batch of chicha and drained it before smashing the keros (ceremonial drinking mugs) and setting fire to the brewery, the last building to be torched, according to the researchers. At that final party, the women brewers may have tossed their tupus (decorative pins) into the flames or they may simply have lost them during the hot work in the brewery over all the centuries preceding it. Whatever the case, if modern day (and historically attested) practices are any indication, it is likely the women consumed just as much chicha as the men. "There's a lot of equality in terms of how men and women drink in the highlands of the Andes," says team member Susan deFrance, also at the University of Florida. "Women will get as rip-roaring drunk, if not more so, than men."

September 02nd, 2008


But what if you want is to know the exactly what to do because of as much veneration to the most miraculous Virgin of the Valley, get ready to cross the Tourist Circuit Mamacha Cocharcas. You will not only have a good time, you will also discover a live culture and much landscape. This route begins in Sapallanga. The believers say that the most miraculous Virgin of the Valley appeared there. For that reason, in her honour, a sanctuary rose that every year receives thousands. They say that she fulfils all your requests fully. In this locality you will be able to get to know the archaeological centre Ullacoto and also to feel delighted with the forests of eucalyptuses and cantutas. At one hours of trip is Apata, where you will be able to visit the mythical church of the same name and to know the house where the Andahuaylas poet and writer Jose Maria Arguedas lived. Beautiful lagoons, beautiful cascades, forests of alders and cantutas surround this beautiful place. Orcotuna is forty minutes of the previous locality. It is important to visit it because the image of the Mamacha Cocharcas appeared in a stone, its church and the grotto, of where it brings forth the miraculous water, are there. But in addition you will find beautiful large houses of the republican time. Then, at 45 minutes further down the road is Marcatuna. A new sanctuary of the Virgin waits for you. The route culminates in Tres de Diciembre, where is the smallest Cocharcas Virgin of the Valley.

September 01st, 2008


At only six hours from Lima a great celebration of faith will soon begin that hopes to receive to thousands of visitors. It is an ideal option to have a great time. The towns in the Valley of the Mantaro will have one very long day of collective dances and share common experiences. In the Valley of the Mantaro, at three thousand 300 meters above the level of the sea, the smell of the earth is strained by pores. And from this Tuesday on the celebrations by the Mamacha Cocharcas will also overwhelm the eye sight, the palate of the foreign and native visitors with joy. During eight days (from the 2nd to the 9th of September) the town will go out with its better finery, the women will move their multicoloured chicken farmers to the compass of the bands and the men will raise dust with their tapping shoes or zapateos to ask a miracle of the Virgin of skies and waters. Also to rejoice with the pilgrimages, the bullfights of bulls and with the staging of the capture and death of the Cuzco Inca Atahualpa. This festival and devotion that was born in Copacabana, in the plateau of the Collao, will repeat itself as much in the Locality of Apata (Junin Province of Jauja), like in Sapallanga (Province of Huancayo), Orcotuna (Province of Conception), Marcatuna (Province of Chupaca) and Tres de Diciembre (Province of Chupaca) with the same joy and fervour. The best thing is that each place, in spite of being in different provinces, is not very distant and it is possible to be gone from a celebration to another one. (PART 2 IN THIS SAME SPACE TOMORROW)